MORGELLONS… A Natural Medicine Approach

Posted by C.E. Carnicom on Behalf of the Author:
Gwen Scott, N.D.
Jan 27 2008

Timing is everything, we are told, and now seems to be the time for some revelations.

Those of you who have watched Clifford Carnicom’s documentary on the aerosol operations (Chemtrails) will know me. We have worked together for many years now, trying very hard to unravel the purpose, content, and impact of what is being dumped into our air supply every day. It should be realized that because these are very small particles, they are systemic to your entire body in less than a minute. Think about that, seriously.

My interest is, primarily, finding natural medicines that can help ALL people mitigate the devastating effects of a multi-leveled assault on human health. Mr.Carnicom has provided immeasurable help in identifying contents so that I may design some natural medicine protocols around them. And make no mistake, the contents can be changed at any time without our knowledge or consent. In fact, I believe it has happened and will continue to happen without accountability.

Before I continue a few legal issues need to be addressed. New Mexico and most other states do not license Naturopathic Doctors. The law says I may educate you, but I cannot diagnose illness, or prescribe any medications. With that in mind, I am going to recount my own personal journey with Chemtrail implications as well as “Morgellons.” If any of the information I present has meaning to you, please find an enlightened and competent health care practitioner to work directly with you. Many natural medicines and drugs (prescription and over the counter) do not interact very well, and in some cases, can cause dangerous contraindications. It is imperative that you work closely with a professional you trust and not try to “cowboy” your health circumstances. I give you permission to share any and all information presented here with your health care practitioner so that he/she may evaluate it in light of your own regimen and symptoms.

Also, it is important that you understand one of the founding principles of natural medicine…Herring’s Law of Cure. This law presents that your body will rid itself of anything unwanted (diseases, etc.) from top to bottom, from the inside to the outside, and in the reverse order in which it entered your system. As you will see, much of the work on my own body follows this law exactly.

I am presenting both empirical (personal observation) with scientific information. Many thanks to Clifford Carnicom (hundreds of unpaid hours on his side), a research doctor, a surgeon, a chemist, and many publications for the scientific information. Although I do not have formal scientific training, I have read many books on human anatomy and physiology (structure and function of the systems) as well as herbal remedies, and all other natural modalities. I have also spent lots of hours looking into a microscope. I have a degree as a Naturopathic Doctor from an accredited college. But again, this is a journal of my personal experiences and not in any way to be understood as a “how to” remedy for the Chemtrail maladies, including “Morgellons.”

I spoke of timing at the beginning. It is time to say I am the “Morgellons” person that Mr. Carnicom used for many of his blood, skin, lung, and mouth samples. At the beginning of this work, I was the only provider. Now with so many people willing to give him samples, I know his work will continue. It is time for me to step forward.

I will get to what is being called “Morgellons” disease in just a minute. I must say, in my opinion, it’s not really a disease in the traditional sense. It is not measles or mumps. It doesn’t run a finite course nor is it exclusive to contact with other humans. What we are looking at here is an inorganic fiber and other components delivered through the air supply. In my opinion, what we are really looking at is a progressive “system” or “syndrome” in which “Morgellons” is just the latest and most visible aspect.

My journey into this “syndrome” began over ten years ago. I felt “something” was in me that didn’t belong…a gut feeling. I also noticed that my joints were aching more than they should, I got tired easily, I was getting skins breakouts, and my digestion was “off.” I was eating well (organics, free range meats, etc.) and exercising, yet I felt my vitality slipping. I decided to begin a program of “wellness” without any idea where it would lead me.

I began by introducing herbs and herbal combinations that would address the full range of pathogens that might be causing me problems…bacteria, virus, fungus, and parasite. I was able to eliminate organic parasites at the beginning. That still left me with the other three. So, I searched for and found one herbal combination that addressed all three. It is called Deep Health by Herbs, Etc. I also made some bad or aggressive choices that were really quite dangerous which I will not share. With this herbal extract I began to get sores all over my head, but, mindful of Herring’s Law, I saw this as a good thing (top to bottom, in to out) They were painful, numerous, volcano like, and produced scabs that were very itchy and would not heal for weeks, months, and, in one case, two years. Of course, at the time, it was before Chemtrail awareness, so I assumed something from earlier years was coming out or some new disease I didn’t know was presenting (later I was to look at photos and see the lines in the sky that I was unaware of at the time.)Those sores were exactly like the ones I have today on my back, but I cannot tell you if there were fibers in the scabs. I strongly suspect there were.

One thing that is very interesting. After my scalp finally healed my hair got thicker, the few gray hairs I had fell out, replaced by much darker hair. Also, the texture of my hair changed. Instead of straight, fine hair it became more coarse and wavy. I don’t know why to this day, but I took it as a good sign. I have a client in Los Angeles who I began working with about 8-months ago and he reports that his once gray eyebrows are now brown again. He also says his once brown hair is growing in again…that he has brown roots in his white hair. Again, I take this as a sign of renewed health.

I began to look at what was happening very carefully. Surely this was not a “normal” or known situation (ten years ago.) I started to see a “network” under my skin that looked like it might be fungal in nature. I contacted a good friend who is a research doctor to get his opinion. Strangely enough, he and his research partner had been looking at live blood samples under an atomic microscope and observed a fungus in EVERYBODY’S blood sample, including his own (note: Mr. Carnicom is finding fibers and an unknown, perhaps bacterial, form in everyone’s blood as well.) He was very upset because he said it looked “altered” and was using very fine particulate metals as weapons against the immune system. He said the fungus actually collected heavy metals and “stabbed” all immune responders. It sounded so science fiction to me at the time. He told me that he had found a great metal detoxification method using food grade diatomaceous earth that he took everyday in distilled water (perma-guard.com.) He said about one tablespoon would work for most adults. The FDA doesn’t give approval for taking diatomaceous earth internally in humans, but we can give it to our cats, dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, etc. Most feed stores carry it. The only known contraindication is if it is taken with food. It will not recognize what metals are good for you (iron, trace copper, etc) and what ones are harmful. My research doctor friend says it will bind up metals and carry them out of your body. I do know this therapy is widely used in India (white earth,) especially by pregnant women. I met the head medicine man of the Shoshone Indian People and he told me they have historically used it to detoxify people. I also met an African American healer in Georgia last year and he told me they’d been using it in his community for years, all the way back to the days of slavery.

At this point in my journey I realized that I not only needed to get rid of any metals in my system, but I needed to go on an aggressive anti-fungal diet with supporting herbs. I made sure to eat LOTS of garlic, onions, etc. and I avoided ALL sugars. I drank Pau D’ Arco tea daily and began to see some important results. I also found a wonderful anti-fungal herbal combination that is no longer available, but Herbs, Etc. has a similar one called Yeast ReLeaf. It should be said, I have no financial ties with any of the companies I mention in this journal.

I continued to eat organics, drink distilled water, and eat, moderately, only free range meats. And I began to notice some vitality returning with the anti-fungal focus. But, I also knew that I was far from “clean.”

About eight years ago I became sadly aware of the Chemtrails. I was blessed to be introduced to Clifford Carnicom, who at that time was a voice in the wilderness. He began to share with me all of the data he was gathering and I began to see why it was so important to get those metals out of the system. Recently, the National Institute for Health in Washington, D.C. released a report on barium. The report linked barium “intoxication” to M.S., ALS, and other diseases of “unknown” origins. The report also said that the military sprayed barium in the air! That was certainly interesting to me. A good deal of research is available linking aluminum to Alzheimer’s disease, especially when the aluminum is combined with fluoride.

Also recently, an oncologist in Italy, Dr. Tullio Simoncini, says he believes cancer is really a fungus. Many other doctors came out in support when he was attacked for presenting his work. He is currently treating people with cancer with enormous success (www.cancerfungus.com). I personally think he is on the right track and so does my surgeon friend who tells me they are opening people up and finding them full of fungus.

He told me there are times they can’t even find the organs because they are “covered” with fungus. I personally have not seen this, but this surgeon has years of experience and no reason to mislead me. I think a strong anti-fungal diet is a great idea. There are many books at the health store outlining them. I should say, most of the books are focused on Candida Albicans, a common fungus and we may be looking at a different “breed” here, but it’s a good start.

I have also found anti-fungal soaps of great help. The brand called Miracle II and its companion Neutralizer have been invaluable in my healing process (www.miracle2.net). Most health stores carry anti-fungal soaps, usually with Tea Tree Oil.

About three years ago, I began to get open, painful sores on my back…they remain to this day. Old ones, in time, will close up and I will think I am finished, but new ones will appear, sometimes overnight. This is the “Morgellons” aspect of my journey. It wasn’t until Mr. Carnicom put the scar tissue under high magnification that the true nature of these sores came to light. In every scar tissue they was at least one and sometimes many fibers. Now I began to understand why the process was ongoing. I breathe…fibers are in the air supply…body wants them out. So, I stand alone, at this time, with the following theory…Morgellons is NOT a disease in the conventional sense. It is the body’s HEALTHY response to an invader, or foreign matter, that does not belong. It seeks to push it out.

About one month ago my teeth started aching. It was slight at first and I really didn’t pay attention. About 4am one morning I awoke with the most painful “tooth ache” I could imagine. I tried every remedy I knew to no avail. I “talked to the kingdom” and got the answer to rinse the tooth vigorously with red wine. I certainly wouldn’t have thought of that. The results are on Mr. Carnicom’s web site. I continue to “pull” them out everyday with the red wine therapy and, although not as many are coming out, I am still producing. It would be an interesting test to run for yourself to see if you have fibers in your gums. Many of my friends who do not have a single “Morgellons” symptom have done it and in all cases fibers can be seen in the sink. Another interesting test is to take your temperature (digital is the fastest) everyday. Everyone seems to be running lower than the 98.6 average. Some of my clients are down in the 94-95 range.

We now know that combined with these fibers are a pathogen that has yet to be identified. It appears to cause damage to the blood, consequently all body systems. I keep hoping that someone with some expertise in this field will step up to the plate and help Mr. Carnicom with his efforts. You know, if you breathe…or your children breathe…or your mother breathes…time to understand that ALL humans are involved.

Another component that is also part of the “Morgellons syndrome” is a luminescent material that some call plastic, others silicone. It comes out of the lungs, eyes, skin, and mouth. My tears are very sticky, a recent development. The material “glows” under a black light and is unknown in its properties. Also, its purpose is unknown as well. I do know that it has somehow incorporated into what is leaving my body. It also contains the unknown pathogen seen in the fibers.

I was interested to note that as I drove across the country recently, in three different states a large “glob” of perfectly clear material hit my windshield (not a gift from the birds.) When I tried to clean it off with my wipers it smeared and took many passes to finally clear. I didn’t collect any samples, but it wouldn’t be surprising if this material coming out of my body is one and the same.

Also of interest to me, on CNN Anderson Cooper presented a series called Planet In Peril and one of the segments contained the results of a blood test he had taken. It was reported that he had an unusually high amount of “plastic” in his blood…wonder if we all do.

I do know that a scientist named Marcel Vogel was experimenting with luminescent materials and their uses in the 70’s (Secret Life of Plants.) He later went to work for IBM and there are many patents with his name involving luminescent material. I was particularly interested in the one involving Electro-luminescent materials, but couldn’t get into the data.

Another curious phenomenon…EVERYBODY’S eyes I have examined under a black light reveal that their pupils “glow” or are luminescent. Is this normal? Perhaps an expert can tell me, as I remember black light parties in the 60’s and I personally don’t remember pupils glowing.

Another interesting observation…after the sores finishing expelling blood with fibers, the scar tissue becomes “plastic” which also contains the fibers.

One final note. There is a huge assault on all life forms taking place electro-magnetically. The planet and all life on it evolved, together, with a common electro-magnetic field. We know from Mr. Carnicom’s work that new frequencies of many levels are being introduced into the atmosphere. How can this not affect us? We are electro-magnetic beings. Could these new “waves” be causing the epidemics I see in depression (NBC reported that nearly ONE-HALF of all Americans are taking anti-depressants,) sleep depravation, tinnitis (ear ringing,) and memory loss? A physicist told me that some of these new frequencies correspond to the same frequencies in the brain that control sleep, mood, and memory. What “materials” are in our body that might respond to these frequencies as well? I certainly don’t know, but it is worth considering when taking a holistic approach to wellness.

FINAL OBSERVATIONS

So, as far as I can observe, we are dealing with a highly integrated “system,” not one disease called “Morgellons.”

And, as I have indicated, it needs to be addressed on a number of levels…heavy metals, fungus, diet, etc. I know you cannot hope to heal eating processed, denatured, chemically rich foods. It has been suggested that perhaps some of what we are looking at here actually comes into us through our food supply. I don’t know. Consider what you put in your mouth very carefully…does it heal or harm? If you are serious about being well during these times, you really have to look at your diet. “Food is your remedy, your remedy is food” Hippocrates.

Fungus is a major player…so are fibers, a bacterial form (mycoplasma, etc) and luminescent materials. There might be others as yet unseen. A research doctor is sure we also have nano-technology in there as well. Although I haven’t observed any in the blood samples, I wouldn’t be surprised. Many of the national labs are spending a lot of money and research on nano-tecnology. Some of the titles of the studies are very unnerving.

I have another observation based purely on my own physical experience. The more I rid my body of these unwanted materials, the more people tell me that I am looking younger. My hair is thick…I have lost about 10-pounds that I simply couldn’t get rid of…they just feel off and I am returned to my “normal” weight. My eyesight has improved dramatically…20-250 to 20-150 in a year and the process continues. Many of the “age” lines on my face have disappeared and my previously achy joints don’t bother me at all. Could it be that these materials are designed to age us rapidly? I have heard lots of people talking lately about how their friends and family members are getting old quickly. I have noticed it myself. Could the agenda presented years ago to thin the population be in full swing (read “….and the truth shall set you free by David Icke.) It seems like it to me.

A final word to anyone involved in spraying our skies…even if you think you are doing something good for the citizens of the world…you are not. And if you and those you love breathe…well then, someone has mislead you. I believe in time we will find that EVERYONE has “Morgellons” syndrome. That EVERYONE, whether they are presenting sores or not, is carrying fibers, fungus, luminescent material, etc. Mr. Carnicom’s most recent work would certainly lead us in that direction.

Again, work with a professional who understands and has the expertise to help you towards wellness.

I will update this journal with new information as it appears.

Stand in The Light

Blessings and Good Health

Gwen Scott, N.D.”

ALERT OF THE WEEK- Stop Monsanto’s Genetically Engineered Wheat

wheatMonsanto and the biotech bullies are once again moving to tighten their grip on the world’s food supply. Genetically engineered (GE) varieties now account for 70-90% of all conventional (non-organic) corn, soybeans, cotton, and canola grown in the U.S. Joining the growing menu of unlabeled and untested gene-spliced Frankenfoods, genetically engineered sugar (derived from GE sugar beets) hit store shelves in 2008. Now it appears that the most controversial crop of them all, Monsanto’s GE wheat, is not far behind, at least if industry gets its way. Given that wheat is such a major global crop and essential ingredient in bread, breakfast cereals, pasta and other everyday foods, the force-feeding of unlabeled GE wheat on the public would represent a major conquest for Monsanto and the biotech industry.

Although Monsanto withdrew their applications to the U.S. and Canadian governments for approval of genetically engineered wheat in 2004 because of tremendous pressure from the OCA and hundreds of our allied public interest groups and farmers (as well as pressure from large food companies such as General Mills), it looks like we’re in for another round of battle.

Wheat industry groups in the United States, Canada and Australia announced on May 14, 2009, they would work toward the objective of “synchronized commercialization of biotech traits in the wheat crop.” For the sake of the Earth and public health, we must stop them.

LEARN MORE AND TAKE ACTION

An exchange between My Senator and I about GMOs and food safety..

On May 28, 2009, at 6:31 AM, <senator@feinstein.senate.gov> <senator@feinstein.senate.gov> wrote:

Dear Mr. Saunders:

Thank you for writing to express your views on the “Global Food Security Act of 2009” (S. 384). I appreciate hearing from you on this legislation and welcome the opportunity to respond.

Like you, I believe that Congress must maintain its commitment to a robust foreign aid package designed to help develop and maintain effective food security programs worldwide. Please know that I understand and have noted your concerns about the development of genetically modified food as a means to provide for global food security.

As you may know, on March 31, 2009 the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations favorably reported S. 384 to the full Senate for consideration. Be assured that I have noted your views on how best to further global food security, and will keep your views in mind should the Senate have the opportunity to debate this bill.

Again, thank you for writing. I hope that you will continue to write on matters of importance to you. Should you have any further comments or questions, please feel free to contact my Washington, D.C. office at (202) 224-3841. Best regards.

Sincerely yours,

Dianne Feinstein
United States Senator

Further information about my position on issues of concern to California and the Nation are available at my websitehttp://feinstein.senate.gov/public/. You can also receive electronic e-mail updates by subscribing to my e-mail list at http://feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=ENewsletterSignup.Signup.

Dear Senator,

Thanks for your reply.
As for your statement which I am perceiving as a “hinting” without verbally committing to the position of being in SUPPORT of Genetically Modifying Organisms in dangerous and wreckless ways before feeding them to ourselves despite scientific evidence and a great deal of it that suggests that it is endangering to human health and safety to do so? As a public leader it seems that you hold a tenuous position of balance between individual human rights concerns and corporate interests, and possibly without enough time to fully research the information required to make a fully responsible decision about the issue, you have my empathy on that if it is the case. It is on this issue that I urge you to draw the line on the side of human rights concerns, many of your constituency have researched enough to know that GMOs for food is a dangerous proposition, and only valuable to those who would seek to harm human life, justifying the act with statistics, and junk-science. When this comes up on the floor for debate, what will your position be on the issue of GMO’s? You reply that you have noted mine, and neglected to inform me of your position. Am I mistaken in my assumption that you and I have differing views on this issue?

As always, I appreciate you and your efforts,

Stephen Saunders

Lots of Pure Water Ice At Mars North Pole

Posted by CmdrTaco on Wednesday January 21, @09:24AM

from the so-what-my-freezer-has-tons-of-it dept.
brink2012 writes “Planum Boreum, Mars’ north polar cap contains water ice ‘of a very high degree of purity,’ according to an international study. Using radar data from the SHARAD (SHAllow RADar) instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), French researchers say the data point to 95 percent purity in the polar ice cap. The north polar cap is a dome of layered, icy materials, similar to the large ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica, consisting of layered deposits, with mostly ice and a small amount of dust. Combined, the north and south polar ice caps are believed to hold the equivalent of two to three million cubic kilometers (0.47-0.72 million cu. miles) of ice, making it roughly 100 times more than the total volume of North America’s Great Lakes, which is 22,684 cu. kms (5,439 miles). The study was done by researchers at France’s National Institute of Sciences of the Universe (Insu), using the Italian built SHARAD radar sounder on the US built MRO. SHARAD looks for liquid or frozen water in the first few hundreds of feet (up to 1 kilometer) of Mars’ crust by using subsurface sounding. It can detect liquid water and profile ice. Mars southern polar cap was once thought to be carbon dioxide ice, but ESA’s Mars Express confirmed that it is composed of a mixture of water and carbon dioxide. The study on Mars north polar cap appears in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, published by the American Geophysical Union.”

GREAT MOMENTS IN SCIENCE

Reto U. Schneider is the author of The Mad Science Book. This is one of the experiments described

Reto U. Schneider, The Mad Science Book – The Good Friday service in Easter 1962 was a memorable experience for ten seminarians at the Andover Newton Theological School. Although they could remember hardly anything of the sermon delivered by Pastor Howard Thurman, they could recall a sea of colors, voices from the Beyond, and the feeling that they were melting into the surrounding world. In a word, the students were high.

At the beginning of the 1960s, some daring scientists turned their attention to studying mind-altering substances. This was the period when it was all part and parcel of a lecture on mysticism to ingest magic mushrooms to gain practical insight into the subject, and when a doctoral thesis could entail giving students drugs and observing their behaviour. This is exactly what Walter Pahnke did: this young theologian and doctor from Harvard University was keen to discover whether psychedelic drugs could induce the kind of mystical sensations that only very few people otherwise experience, for example when in a state of religious trance. Users of LSD, psilocybin or mescaline had long claimed that this was the case.

Pahnke turned to Timothy Leary, who a short time before had begun conducting drug experiments at Harvard, and who later became a leading figure in the 1960s counterculture. He proposed an experiment to Leary: test subjects would attend a church service, but half of them would be given mind-expanding drugs in advance. Afterwards, all participants would be required to fill in a questionnaire and be interviewed.  Comparing the findings with descriptions of mystical experiences from the realm of religion would demonstrate whether there was a qualitative difference between them.

[Leary] explained to Pahnke that a psychedelic trip was an intensely personal experience and that a person would have to have experienced several himself before he could even contemplate devising such an experiment. However, Pahnke was adamant that he would have to wait until his thesis had been accepted before he indulged. He didn’t want anyone accusing him of partiality: the experiment would only have a chance of succeeding if he hadn’t taken any drugs himself beforehand. . .

On the morning of Good Friday, two hours before the service, 20 students met in the crypt of Boston University’s Marsh Chapel. They were encouraged “not try to fight the effects of the drug even if the experience became very unusual or frightening.”. . .

The service lasted two and a half hours. When it had ended, the students were interviewed for the first time. At 5 o’clock, Leary invited everyone to come and eat with him, but ‘the trippers were still too high to do much except shake their heads, saying “Wow!”‘, as he later recalled. . .

In the days following the experiment, and again six months later, the subjects were quizzed about what they had gone through. . . The results were unequivocal: eight of the 10 students who had eaten the magic mushroom experienced at least seven of the impressions and feelings customarily associated with a mystical experience. By contrast, no-one from the control group reached this kind of score. In every category, they lagged far behind the experimental group. . .

Twenty-five years after the experiment, the psychologist Rick Doblin attempted to find the surviving participants. In four years’ of detective work, he succeeded in tracking down 19 of the 20 students. Sixteen of them agreed to be interviewed and filled in the same questionnaire as in the original experiment. The results were astonishingly consistent: those in the experimental group and the control group gave much the same answers as they had done a quarter of a century before. The test subjects from the experimental group described the Good Friday service of 1962 as one of the high points in their spiritual lives. They all claimed that the experiment had had a positive influence on them. Some attributed their later socially aware outlook to it, while others said it had helped them come to a positive accommodation with their fear of death.

Nevertheless, most of the former participants also recalled that the experiment also had its negative aspects. There were moments when they thought they were going mad or dying. Pahnke only treated this aspect in passing in his thesis. In particular he hushed up the fact that one subject had to be injected with an antidote when the situation got out of hand: seized with an urge to put Pastor Thurman’s call to spread the word of Christ into action straight away, one student left the chapel and went out onto the street, from where he had to be fetched back. . .

Just one member of the control group claimed that the experiment had benefited him greatly. Not that it was the church service as such that had such a positive effect on him, but rather the decision he made during it to try psychedelic drugs himself at the next available opportunity.

Proteins change as pot plants clean up soil

[April 1, 2007]

When cannabis hits the headlines it is often in response to the latest cannabis farm that has been unearthed, be it in a remote field in the country or in someone’s roof in the city. Bad press all round for a plant known for its psychoactive properties and misuse, even though it is finding support from individuals and doctors for alleviating the symptoms of many illnesses. But what many people fail to appreciate is that there are other, safer, varieties of Cannabis sativa that bring different qualities to society.

The pot-smoking species is C. sativa subsp. indica, characterised by relatively large amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component. However, another cultivar, C. sativa subsp. sativa, produces only trace amounts of THC and grows long and tall, with little branching. This form is cultivated for its fibres and is more often known as industrial hemp. It is easy to grow, typically taking 4 months to rise to heights of 3-10 feet, its fast growth negating the need for herbicides.

It has been estimated that hemp is used in more than 25,000 products, including paper, fibreboard, textiles, biodegradable composites, plastics, rope, sails and furniture. Compared with wood chippings, hemp produces at least double the amount of fibre and does not require bleaching or other toxic chemicals.

But Cannabis sativa has one further property that can get careless industrialists and farmers off the hook. It can help to clean up soil that has been contaminated with toxic heavy metals such as cadmium, nickel and copper. Plants grown in soil that has been fouled by industrial effluent, metal-enriched fertilisers or herbicides can absorb metals into their root systems. So, ideally, crops could be grown on contaminated soil, then the fibres harvested for industrial use.

Little is known about how the Cannabis plant reacts when it takes up excess copper, especially within the proteome. How does it manage this, while still maintaining growth and its normal protein functions? This question has now been addressed by scientists from the University of Piemonte Orientale in Alessandria who have studied the proteome of Cannabis sativa var. Felina 34 grown under copper stress.

Seedlings were planted in a quartz sand-loam-gravel mix that was dosed with 150 ppm copper sulphate. This level is well above the mean world soil copper concentration of 20 ppm, while remaining below that at which serious plant toxicity is observed. After 6 weeks, the copper-treated plants were smaller than control plants, with shorter leaf areas, root lengths and root volumes.

The copper content, determined by ICPMS, doubled in the shoots, but increased 8-fold in the roots compared with controls. This distribution confirmed that copper intake was preferentially localised in the root system in agreement with published work which declared the copper gradient in hemp to be roots > stems > leaves > seeds.

Proteins in the roots were extracted by standard methods and separated by 2D gel electrophoresis. The protein spots that had statistically significant intensity differences from the control gel were selected for in-gel digestion with trypsin for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Seven proteins were down-regulated, five were up-regulated and two disappeared altogether.

Subsequent identification was not straightforward, since the C. sativa genome has not yet been sequenced. So the researchers, led by senior reporter Maria Cavaletto, used de novo sequencing from the MS/MS spectra then aligned the proteins to database sequences of related organisms. This cross-species protocol was able to identify some of the protein with altered abundances.

Since no new proteins were observed under copper stress, the team concluded that the plant does not evolve a copper-specific mechanism to incorporate the excess metal ions. They proposed a copper-coping mechanism in which the first protein to interact with the copper ions, present as copper(II), was aldo/keto reductase. It acts as a scavenger, reducing copper(II) to copper(I), a process which makes it available for interactions with other proteins such as phytochelatins that bind copper(I). This reductase is an auxin-induced protein, confirming the involvement of auxin as a plant growth regulator handling the excess metal.

Other implicated proteins include the stress proteins formate dehydrogenase, a protein that increases in response to other stresses such as dark, cold and drought, as well as enolase and elicitor-inducible protein. Other implicated proteins are those which confer greater copper resistance and provide an efficient reducing system (thioredoxin peroxidase, peroxidase and cyclophilin) and those which regulate root growth (actin, ribosomal proteins and glycine-rich protein.

This preliminary work will mark a useful basis for future phytoremediation studies, perhaps being used to develop plants for biomonitoring or for the remediation of heavily metal-polluted soil.

Related links:

* Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale

http://www.disav.unipmn.it/


* Proteomics 2007, 7, 1121: “Proteomic characterization of copper stress response in Cannabis sativa roots”

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/user/accessdenied?ID=114182347&Act=2138&Code=4717&Page=/cgi-bin/fulltext/114182347/PDFSTART


http://www.spectroscopynow.com/coi/cda/detail.cda;jsessionid=B9527441DE1FE87DF66C0D19CA250C2E?id=16011&type=Feature&chId=10&page=1

Junk Food may lead to Alzheimer’s symptoms

Reuters – Mice fed junk food for nine months showed signs of developing the abnormal brain tangles strongly associated with Alzheimer’s disease, a Swedish researcher said. The findings, which come from a series of published papers by a researcher at Sweden’s Karolinska Institutet, show how a diet rich in fat, sugar and cholesterol could increase the risk of the most common type of dementia. “On examining the brains of these mice, we found a chemical change not unlike that found in the Alzheimer brain,” Susanne Akterin, a researcher at the Karolinska Institutet’s Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, who led the study, said in a statement. “We now suspect that a high intake of fat and cholesterol in combination with genetic factors … can adversely affect several brain substances, which can be a contributory factor in the development of Alzheimer’s.