“Is the ‘Feminization’ of Cannabis Seeds for the purpose of forcing the plant to yield Pistillate or ‘female’ flowers NATURAL and acceptable?”
I grow traditional method, outdoors, THUNDERGRO™ treated, cull the males, and raise the females through the flowering process, and the use the graduated cull method to harvest the flowers. I feel like it is an important part of the process to let the seeds flower whichever way they wish to go, HOWEVER- I have experienced an ‘influence’ of older more mature flowering females over young undifferentiated (have not turned male or female yet)-
whenever I have a bunch of those (older flowering females) around, and also young plants, I have a HUGE increase in the number of the young plants that turn male! This influence must be happening by the females using pheromones or something, so in a sense nature is doing the same thing in a subtler way, soooo…….. still undecided on it, but lean toward the natural , NON PROHIBITION INDUCED methods and processes. I guess that would technically mean indoor growing as well.. tough to draw the line when we are a part of nature herself, so you are telling nature she cannot do anything she wishes!!! You see the conundrum I am attempting to reveal here…?!”
The California Supreme Court today struck down the state’s limits on how
much medical marijuana a patient can possess, concluding that the
restrictions imposed by the Legislature were an unconstitutional
amendment of a 1996 voter-approved initiative.
The decision means that patients and caregivers with a doctor’s recommendation to use marijuana can now possess as much as is
“reasonably related to the patient’s current medical needs,” a standard
that the court established in a 1997 decision.
“I’m very pleased. They gave us exactly what we wanted,” said Gerald F. Uelmen, a law professor at Santa Clara University who argued
the case for Patrick K. Kelly, a medical marijuana patient from
Lakewood who was convicted of possession and cultivation. “This makes
it very clear that all of the rights of patients under the
Compassionate Use Act are fully preserved.”
The initiative did not limit the amount of marijuana that a patient could possess or cultivate other than to require it be
“personal medical purposes.”
Report says marijuana is used by nearly half of older drug users
An estimated 4.3 million Americans age 50 and older‹roughly one out of every 20 in that age group‹have used at least one drug illicitly within the past year, according to a government report released today that offers an intriguing snapshot of aging Americans and drugs.
Those who admitted to illicit drug use included nearly one in 10 boomers between ages 50 and 54, and one in 14 of those between 55 and 59, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which included a sample of nearly 20,000 older Americans.
Of the group that said they used drugs, marijuana was the drug of choice for nearly half of those 50 and older (44.9 percent). One-third (33.4 percent) admitted to taking prescription drugs for purposes other than their intended use. The survey was sponsored by the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
The findings follow previous research from the agency, released last summer, noting that marijuana use among those in their 50s increased by 84 percent since 2002. ³For the most part, this is a group of people that, as they age, never gave it up,² Peter Delany, who directs the agency¹s research, tells Bulletin Today.
Marijuana use was more prevalent among those in their 50s than in other age groups, the new report finds, while nonmedical use of prescription drugs was more common in men and women 65 and older. ³We can¹t explain why more older adults are misusing prescription drugs,² Delany says, ³but we can say that those medications are more available than they used to be.² It may be, he says, that people with valid prescriptions are disposing of their medication improperly, or that some are sharing their medication with others.
The survey did not track the reasons for taking the drugs‹whether they were for pain or for pleasure. But, Delany adds, ³If this trend continues‹and we expect it will‹the number of those in this age group who need treatment may double this decade.²
He sees the findings as a wake-up call for health professionals to do a better job of screening older patients for signs of drug abuse or misuse. ³When I go to my physician,² Delany says, ³I¹m asked about my tobacco and alcohol use, but I¹m not asked if I¹m using drugs. Also, I¹m not asked if I¹m feeling sad or want to hurt myself.²
Looking at all age groups, researchers find that men have higher rates of all types of illicit drug use, with one exception: women between ages 60 and 64. They are nearly twice as likely as men in their age group to take prescription drugs for nonprescription purposes.
The potential for prescription misuse‹and abuse‹in older Americans is nothing new. In a 2007 study published in the American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, researchers from the University of Maryland¹s School of Pharmacy in Baltimore found that one in four older adults had exposure to prescription medications with ³abuse potential.²
³Most are painkillers,² says Linda Simoni-Wastila, a professor and lead author of that research. ³And a lot of it starts out as appropriate. Older folks don¹t usually run out and say, ŒI¹m going to be a recreational user.¹ But they have lower back pain, they can¹t sleep, so their doctor continues to prescribe the drugs‹and they get hooked.²
She adds that she¹s not surprised by the new SAMHSA research. She theorizes that in addition to old habits‹the Woodstock generation holding on to its pot-smoking habit of yesteryear‹there is also new, growing acceptance and use of medical marijuana.
Although alcohol use was not included in the national survey, Simoni-Wastila says it should be. ³When psychoactive drugs are [used or] abused in combination with alcohol, it can cause a lot of problems. These drugs should not be used in combination with each other‹or with alcohol.²
Sid Kirchheimer writes about consumer and health issues.
San Francisco Weekly – According to the just-released Uniform Crime Reports, U.S. law enforcement made 847,863 arrests on marijuana charges, 89 percent of which were for simple possession, not sale or manufacture. More Americans were arrested for marijuana possession than for all violent crimes combined. During 2008, one American was arrested for marijuana every 37 seconds.Marijuana arrests reached an all-time high at more than 872,000 in 2007. More than 12 million American citizens have been arrested on marijuana charges since 1965.
Providence, RI: The moderate long-term use of marijuana is associated with a reduced risk of head and neck cancers, according to the results of a population-based case-control study published online by the journal Cancer Prevention Research.
Investigators at Rhode Island’s Brown University, along with researchers at Boston University, Louisiana State University, and the University of Minnesota assessed the lifetime marijuana use habits of 434 cases (patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma from nine medical facilities) compared to 547 matched controls.
Authors reported, “After adjusting for potential confounders (including smoking and alcohol drinking), 10 to 20 years of marijuana use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma … [as was] moderate weekly use.”
Subjects who smoked marijuana and consumed alcohol and tobacco (two known high risk factors for head and neck cancers) also experienced a reduced risk of cancer, the study found.
“Our study suggests that moderate marijuana use is associated with reduced risk of HNSCC,” investigators concluded. “This association was consistent across different measures of marijuana use (marijuana use status, duration, and frequency of use). … Further, we observed that marijuana use modified the interaction between alcohol and cigarette smoking, resulting in a decreased HNSCC risk among moderate smokers and light drinkers, and attenuated risk among the heaviest smokers and drinkers. … Despite our results being consistent with the point estimates from other studies, there remains a need for this inverse association to be confirmed by further work, especially in studies with large sample sizes.”
A separate 2006 population case-control study also reported that lifetime use of cannabis was not positively associated with cancers of the lung or aerodigestive tract, and noted that certain moderate users of the drug experienced a reduced cancer risk compared to non-using controls.
By contrast, a study published earlier this week in the journal Cancer Epidemiology reports that even the moderate use of alcohol (six drinks or less per week) is associated with an elevated risk of various cancers – including stomach cancer, rectal cancer, and bladder cancer.
For more information, please contact Paul Armentano, NORML Deputy Director, at: firstname.lastname@example.org. Full text of the study, “A population-based case control study of marijuana use and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” will appear in Cancer Prevention Research.
Oakland, CA: Municipal voters on Tuesday overwhelmingly approved the nation’s first ever business tax on retail marijuana sales.
Approximately 80 percent of Oakland voters approved the new tax (which appeared on the ballot as Measure F), which imposes an additional tax for “cannabis businesses” of $18 for every $1,000 of gross receipts beginning January 1, 2010.
Presently, Oakland’s medicinal cannabis dispensaries are taxed at the same rate as other retail sales businesses ($60 per year for the $50,000 of gross receipts, plus $1.20 for each additional $100,000).
Four dispensaries are licensed by the Oakland City Council to sell and dispense medical marijuana.
According to a financial analysis by the Oakland City Auditor, Oakland’s new cannabis business tax will generate an estimated $300,000 in additional annual tax revenue. Other proponents have estimated that the new tax could yield up to a million dollars yearly.
Representatives from the Oakland City Council, the California Nurses Association, and the dispensary community publicly advocated for the new tax, which had no formal opposition.
“The passage of this first-in-the-nation tax further legitimizes cannabis-based enterprises in Oakland and elsewhere,” NORML Executive Director Allen St. Pierre said. These outlets are contributing to the health and welfare of their local communities, both socially and now economically. At a time when many municipalities are strapped for tax revenues and cutting public services it is likely that public officials in other cities will begin considering similar proposals.”
City officials in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Berkeley may also impose a cannabis-business tax on certain retail dispensaries.
For more information, please contact either Allen St. Pierre, NORML Executive Director, at (202) 483-5500, or Dale Gieringer, California NORML Coordinator at: (415) 563-5858.